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Steroid Hormones survive the Composting Process



Sci Total Environ.
2013 Jul 1;
Potential water quality impacts originating from land burial of cattle carcasses.
Yuan Q1, Snow DD, Bartelt-Hunt SL.

Among the conventional disposal methods for livestock mortalities, on-farm burial is a preferred method, but the potential water quality impacts of animal carcass burial are not well understood. Typically, on-farm burial pits are constructed without liners and any leachate produced may infiltrate into soil and groundwater. To date, no information is available on temporal trends for contaminants in leachate produced from livestock mortality pits. In our study, we examined the concentrations of conventional contaminants including electrical conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, TP, and solids, as well as veterinary antimicrobials and steroid hormones in leachate over a period of 20 months. Most of the contaminants were detected in leachate after 50 days of decomposition, reaching a peak concentration at approximately 200 days and declined to baseline levels by 400 days. The estrogen 17β-estradiol and a veterinary antimicrobial, monensin, were observed at maximum concentrations of 20,069 ng/L and 11,980 ng/L, respectively. Estimated mass loading of total steroid hormone and veterinary pharmaceuticals were determined to be 1.84 and 1.01 μg/kg of buried cattle carcass materials, respectively. These data indicate that leachate from carcass burial sites represents a potential source of nutrients, organics, and residues of biologically active micro-contaminants to soil and groundwater.

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